Risk Factors

Males ages 20-34  90% of testicular cancer occurs in this age range; however, infants and the elderly can also develop testicular cancer.

Cryptochordism This is known as undescended teste(s). 10% of testicular cancers occur in men with cryptochordism.  In 75% of these cases, the cancer developed in the undescended testicle. The risk seems to increase in those whose testicle stayed in the abdomen versus those that partially descended.

Klinefelter's Syndrome This is a congenital disorder with an extra x chromosome causing testicular failure in men, usually diagnosed after puberty.

Personal History Those men with a history of testicular cancer have a 2-3% increase risk of developing cancer in the other testicle.  Smoking and alcohol are also risk factors for developing cancer.

Carcinoma in situ This is a malignant tumor in early stages when it affects only the site or origin.  It is in a premetastatic stage in which surrounding tissues or organs are not affected.  Many people in the United States are unaware of this condition because it is asymptomatic and does not present with a mass. 

Family History The risk increases 8-10 times if a brother has developed testicular cancer. The risk increases 4 times if the father developed testicular cancer.

HIV/AIDs Risk increases with HIV infection, especially with progression to AIDs.

Microlithiais This is calcium formations found on the testes via ultrasound.

Infertility Men may be at higher risk for testicular cancer if they are infertile or subfertile. This association has been made because when men present with testicular cancer, they are often infertile at that time.

Race Risk increases 4 times in Caucasian males, and 2 times in Hispanic, Asian, and Native American males. The risk is highest among men living in the United States and Europe, and lowest in men living in Africa and Asia. 

Incidence Rates by Race 2001-2005

All Races                                             5.4 per 100,000 men
White                                                   6.3 per 100,000 men
Black                                                   1.4 per 100,000 men
Asian/Pacific Islander                          1.7 per 100,000 men
American Indian/Alaskan Native          4.2 per 100,000 men
Hispanic                                               3.9 per 100,000 men